Haematological and Histopathological parameters of rats fed with Aerial yam (Dioscorea bulbifera)

Princewill-Ogbonna, I.L1, Abagha O.J. 2, and Ijioma, S.N3

1, 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria
3Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria
Corresponding author.


The anti-nutrition contents and effects on haematological and histopathological profile of boiled and roasted preparations of Dioscorea bulbifera were evaluated to assess possible toxicity effects. The study was carried out in the Physiology Laboratory of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike between July and December, 2014. Dioscorea bulbifera was obtained from National Root crop Research Institute, Umudike, and processed into boiled and roasted flour varieties. The anti-nutritional compositions of the two preparations were estimated following standard procedures. For the haematological and histopathological studies, 25 matured albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats. Group 1 animals were fed with normal feed and water and served as the control. Groups 2 and 3 were fed with 20% and 40% combinations of boiled variety with feed, while groups 4 and 5 were given 20% and 40% combinations of the roasted variety with feed respectively. At the end of 28 days all animals were sacrificed for blood and visceral organs collections used for haematological and histopathological studies. Results obtained revealed the presence of significant amounts of saponins, hydrocyanide, phenols and tannins in the boiled and roasted preparations of Dioscorea bulbifera when compared to the standard feed used. All animals fed with various dose concentrations of Dioscorea bulbifera showed no significant changes in their red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) with slight reduction in white blood cells (WBC) counts, suggesting no form of blood toxicity. The liver, kidney and lung histology also showed no necrosis and histopathological alterations and were not significantly different from those of the control rats. The consumption of Dioscorea bulbifera contain tolerable amounts of anti-nutrition factors and is safe for both human and animal consumption.

Keywords: Haematological, Histopathological, Rat, Dioscorea bulbifera, Anti-nutrients.